However, it is still questionable whether this organization will serve its role as an effective rice price fixing cartel, that is similar to OPEC's mechanism for managing petroleum. Economic analysts and traders said the proposal would go nowhere because of the inability of governments to cooperate with each other and control farmers' output. Moreover, countries that are involved expressed their concern that this could only worsen the food security. China needs not less than million hectares of arable land for its food security.
China has reported a surplus of 15 million hectares. By contrast, some 4 million hectares of conversion to urban use and 3 million hectares of contaminated land have also been reported.
During the period —, the European Union lost 0. The loss of agricultural land during the same time was the highest in the Netherlands, which lost 1. The figures are quite alarming for Cyprus 0. Such a loss in wheat production is just 0. Additionally, the income from the new land use is often much higher than the one guaranteed by agriculture, as in the case of urbanisation or extraction of raw materials. As anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions reduce the stability of the global climate,  abrupt climate change could become more intense.
Particles in the troposphere would quickly rain out, but particles in the stratosphere , especially sulfate , could remain there for years. The Toba super volcanic eruption approximately 70, years ago may have nearly caused the extinction of humans  see Toba catastrophe theory. Again, primarily sulfate particles could block the sun for years. Solar blocking is not limited to natural causes as nuclear winter is also possible, which refers to the scenario involving widespread nuclear war and burning of cities that release soot into the stratosphere that would stay there for about 10 years.
A sufficiently powerful geomagnetic storm could result in the sudden absence of access to electricity in large areas of the world.
Essay on Food Problems in India
Because industrial farming is increasingly dependent on constant access to electricity, for example in precision livestock farming , a geomagnetic storm could potentially have devastating effects to the food production. Agricultural subsidies are paid to farmers and agribusinesses to supplement their income, manage the supply of their commodities and influence the cost and supply of those commodities.
Taxpayers heavily subsidize corn and soy, which are primary ingredients in processed foods and fatty foods not encouraged by the government,  and are also used to fatten livestock. Half of farmland is devoted to corn and soy, and the rest is wheat. Soy and corn can be found in sweeteners like high fructose corn syrup.
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Little land is used for fruit and vegetable farming. Corn, a pillar of American agriculture for years, is now mainly used for ethanol, high fructose corn syrup and bio-based plastics. The subsidies result in those commodities being cheap to the public, compared to those recommended by dietary guidelines.
National Food Security Act, - Wikipedia
By way of comparison, in one of the largest food producing countries in the world, the United States, approximately one out of six people are "food insecure", including 17 million children, according to the U. Department of Agriculture in There are also regional variations in food security.
Social stigma is another important consideration, and for children, sensitively administering in-school programs can make the difference between success and failure. For instance, when John Woods, co-founder of Full Plates, Full Potential,  learned that embarrassed students were shying away from the free breakfasts being distributed at a school he was working with, he made arrangements to provide breakfast free of charge to all of the students there. According to a Congressional Budget Office report on child nutrition programs, it is more likely that food insecure children will participate in school nutrition programs than children from food secure families.
Students who ate school lunches provided by NLSP showed higher diet quality than if they had their own lunches. Countless partnerships have emerged in the quest for food security. WIC alone served approximately 7. Despite the sizable populations served by these programs, Conservatives have regularly targeted these programs for defunding.
On January 23, , H.
The bill seeks to repeal a rule set by the Food and Nutrition Service of the Department of Agriculture, which mandates schools to provide more nutritious and diverse foods across the food plate. Food insecurity in children can lead to developmental impairments and long term consequences such as weakened physical, intellectual and emotional development.
Food insecurity also related to obesity for people living in neighborhoods where nutritious food are unavailable or unaffordable. Gender inequality both leads to and is a result of food insecurity.
Challenges to Food Security in India - IOSR journals
Women tend to be responsible for food preparation and childcare within the family and are more likely to spend their income on food and their children's needs. However, women face discrimination in access to land, credit, technologies, finance and other services. While these are rough estimates, there would be a significant benefit of closing the gender gap on agricultural productivity.
The number of people affected by hunger is extremely high, with enormous effects on girls and women. One of the most up-and-coming techniques to ensuring global food security is the use of genetically modified GM crops. The genome of these crops can be altered to address one or more aspects of the plant that may be preventing it from being grown in various regions under certain conditions.
source Many of these alterations can address the challenges that were previously mentioned above, including the water crisis, land degradation, and the ever-changing climate. In agriculture and animal husbandry , the Green Revolution popularized the use of conventional hybridization to increase yield by creating high-yielding varieties. Often, the handful of hybridized breeds originated in developed countries and were further hybridized with local varieties in the rest of the developing world to create high yield strains resistant to local climate and diseases.
The area sown to genetically engineered crops in developing countries is rapidly catching up with the area sown in industrial nations. Some scientists question the safety of biotechnology as a panacea; agroecologists Miguel Altieri and Peter Rosset have enumerated ten reasons  why biotechnology will not ensure food security, protect the environment, or reduce poverty. Reasons include:. Based on evidence from previous attempts, there is a likely lack of transferability of one type of GM crop from one region to another. For example, modified crops that have proven successful in Asia from the Green Revolution have failed when tried in regions of Africa.
There is also a drastic lack of education given to governments, farmers, and the community about the science behind GM crops, as well as suitable growing practices. In most relief programs, farmers are given seeds with little explanation and little attention is paid to the resources available to them or even laws that prohibit them from distributing produce.
Governments are often not advised on the economic and health implications that come with growing GM crops, and are then left to make judgments on their own. Because they have so little information regarding these crops, they usually shy away from allowing them or do not take the time and effort required to regulate their use. Members of the community that will then consume the produce from these crops are also left in the dark about what these modifications mean and are often scared off by their 'unnatural' origins.
This has resulted in failure to properly grow crops as well as strong opposition to the unknown practices. A study published in June evaluated the status of the implementation of Golden Rice , which was first developed in the s to produce higher levels of Vitamin A than its non-GMO counterparts.
This strain of rice was designed so that malnourished women and children in third world countries who were more susceptible to deficiencies could easily improve their Vitamin A intake levels and prevent blindness, which is a common result. Golden Rice production was centralized to the Philippines, yet there have been many hurdles to jump in order to get production moving. The study showed that the project is far behind schedule and is not living up to its expectations.
Although research on Golden Rice still continues, the country has moved forward with other non-GMO initiatives to address the Vitamin A deficiency problem that is so pervasive in that region. Livestock biodiversity is also threatened by the modernization of agriculture and the focus on more productive major breeds.
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Therefore, efforts have been made by governments and non-governmental organizations to conserve livestock biodiversity through strategies such as Cryoconservation of animal genetic resources. Common GM crops include cotton, maize, and soybeans, all of which are grown throughout North and South America as well as regions of Asia.
One of the biggest threats to rice, which is a staple food crop especially in India and other countries within Asia, is blast disease, which is a fungal infection that causes lesions to form on all parts of the plant. The latter can be helpful in extreme climates with little arable land and also decreases deforestation, as fewer trees need to be cut down in order to make room for crop fields. This addresses various health concerns associated with such pesticides and can also work to improve biodiversity within the area in which these crops are grown.
In a review of Borlaug's publication entitled Ending world hunger: the promise of biotechnology and the threat of antiscience zealotry ,  the authors argued that Borlaug's warnings were still true in , . GM crops are as natural and safe as today's bread wheat, opined Dr. Borlaug, who also reminded agricultural scientists of their moral obligation to stand up to the antiscience crowd and warn policy makers that global food insecurity will not disappear without this new technology and ignoring this reality global food insecurity would make future solutions all the more difficult to achieve.
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