Citations document for your readers where you obtained your material, a means of critiquing your study based on the sources you used, and an opportunity to obtain information about prior studies of the research problem under investigation. The act of citing sources is also your best defense against allegations of plagiarism.
Properly citing the works of others is important because:. Whether you summarize, paraphrase, or use direct quotes, if it's not your original idea, the source must be acknowledged. The only possible exception to this rule is information that is considered to be a commonly known fact [e. Appreciate, however, that any "commonly known fact" is culturally constructed and shaped by social and aesthetical biases. Ballenger, Bruce P. The Writing Center. Harvard College Writing Program. Harvard University; Newton, Philip. Academic Skills Centre. University of Canberra; Using Sources. Yale College Writing Center.
Yale University. You must cite research in order to do research, but at the same time, you must delineate what are your original thoughts and ideas and what are the thoughts and ideas of others. Procedures used to cite sources vary among different fields of study. Always speak with your professor about what writing style for citing sources should be used for the class because it is important to fully understand the citation style to be used in your paper, and to apply it consistently.
If your professor defers and tells you to "choose whatever you want, just be consistent," then choose the citation style you are most familiar with or that is appropriate to your major [e. Should I avoid referencing other people's work? If placed in the proper context, r eferencing other people's research is never an indication that your work is substandard or lacks originality.
In fact, the opposite is true. If you write your paper without adequate references to previous studies, you are signaling to the reader that you are not familiar with the literature about the topic, thereby, undermining the validity of your study and your credibility as a researcher.
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Including references in academic writing not only defends you against allegations of plagiarism, but it is one of the most important ways to demonstrate your knowledge and understanding of previous investigations about the research problem. It is the intellectual packaging around which you present your study to the reader. What should I do if I find that my idea has already been examined by another researcher? Do not ignore another author's work because doing so will lead your readers to believe that you have either borrowed the idea or information without properly referencing it [this is plagiarism] or that you have failed to conduct a thorough review of the literature.
You can acknowledge the other research by writing in the text of your paper something like this: [see also Smith, ], then citing the complete source in your list of references. Use the discovery of prior research as an opportunity to demonstrate the significance of the problem being investigated and, if applicable, as a means of delineating your analysis from those of others [e. What should I do if I want to use an adapted version of someone else's work? You still must cite the original work.
- The Importance of Proper Citation of References in Biomedical Articles;
- Related Guides;
- Citation styles guide: choosing a style and citing correctly.
- Citing sources: Overview.
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For example, maybe you are using a table of statistics from a journal article published in by author Smith, but you have altered or added new data to it. Reference the revised chart, such as, [adapted from Smith, ], then cite the complete source in your list of references. You can also use other terms in order to specify the exact relationship between the original source and the version you have presented, such as, "based on Smith  What should I do if several authors have published very similar information or ideas?
Citing Internet Sources | Poorvu Center for Teaching and Learning
You can indicate that the idea or information can be found in the work of others by stating something similar to the following example: "Though in fact many scholars have applied this theory to understanding economic relations among nations [for example, see Smith, ; Jones, ; Johnson, ; Anderson, ], little attention has been given to applying the theory to examining the actions of non-governmental organizations in a globalized economy. Referencing all relevant authors of prior studies gives your readers a clear idea of the breadth of analysis you conducted in preparing to study the research problem.
If there has been a lot of prior studies on the topic, describe the most comprehensive and recent works because they will presumably discuss and reference the older studies; but note, as in the above example, that there has been significant scholarship devoted to the topic so the reader knows that you are aware of this. What if I find exactly what I want to say in the writing of another researcher? In the social sciences, the rationale in duplicating prior research is generally governed by the passage of time, changing circumstances or conditions, or the introduction of new variables that necessitate a new investigation.
If someone else has recently conducted a thorough investigation of precisely the same research problem as you, then you likely will have to revise your topic, or at the very least, review the literature to identify something new to say about the problem. However, if it is someone else's particularly succinct expression, but it fits perfectly with what you are trying to say, then you can quote it directly, referencing the source.
Do not see this as a setback or become discouraged if you discover that your brilliant idea or important insight has already been identified by someone else. Identifying an author who has made the same point as you can be an opportunity to add legitimacy to, as well as reinforce the significance of, the research problem you are investigating.
The key is to build on that idea in new and innovative ways. If you are not sure how to do this, consult with a librarian! Should I cite a source even if it was published long ago? Obviously, any resource used in writing your paper should be cited, regardless of when the study was written. Thesis: Theses and dissertatons should be cited as follows:.
Mortimer, R. A study of hormonal regulation of body temperature and consequences for reproductive success in the common house mouse Mus musculus in Nome, Alaska. Masters Thesis, University of Alaska, Anchorage. When necessary, report the complete URL in the text including the site author's name:.
Ohio State University Library has a good webpage for citing web sources:. Internet sources should be included in your Literature Cited section.
Chapter 9.Citations and Referencing
For unusual reference citations such a government documents, technical reports, etc, refer to Huth et al for a complete listing of citation formats. A copy of this reference should be available in the Ladd Library and a copy is available in the Biology Department. Suppose some of the information cited above was not gained from the Gumwad and Bugjuice publications, but rather in a personal conversation with or letter from an expert on the subject, Dr. Cynthia Mousse. When you have talked with, or written to someone, and gained some information or data that are not published, you should give credit to that person in the following way:.
Mousse, pers. In the Literature Cited you must provide complete citations for each of the published sources cited in your paper. The format for entries in the Literature Cited section differs for books and for journal papers because different kinds of information must be provided. The formats provided here are typical, but may vary in different publications depending on their particular needs and practices.
Some basic rules applicable to all formats indexed by author name s :. Bugjuice, B.
EasyBib Guide to Citing and Writing in APA Format
The role of estrogen in mouse xxxx courtship behavior changes as mice age. J Physiol 62 6 Cratchet, R.
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- How to Read a Citation - Research/Writing/Citing Sources - Research Guides at Georgia Tech Library.
Estrogen, schmestrogen! J Nutrition 33 6 Physiological effects of estrogen on mouse courtship behavior. J Physiol 40 2 Physiological effects of estrogen analogs: Insincere courtship xxxx behavior in female mice. J Physiol 40 8 Each model is shown as the full citation plus the in-text citation format.
How Many References Should I Include in a Research Paper?
Journal Article: Single author. Physiological effects of estrogen on mouse courtship Bugjuice OR Bugjuice Timm, T. The role of whisker length in mouse J Physiol 61 3 The role of estrogen in J Physiol 2 6 Bugjuice et al. Author s Unknown or Not Named. If the authorship of a paper or other document is not provided, cite the author using the word "Anonymous" in the place of the authors name s.
Department, Popville, Maine. Anonymous OR Anonymous Gumwad, G. Behavior patterns of mice. New York: Harper Gumwad OR Gumwad Huth, J. Robinson, P.
Related citing resources in a research paper
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